Use the 'parts catalog'.
As you can see you've referred to 4 different models of machines... and the logic boards do not cross years.
The ports are connected to the logic board and generally beyond DIY soldering skills. A small electronics or computer repair shop may be able to re-solder them for you.
The easiest DIY repair (though still advanced as you have to completely dismantle and the reassemble your machine) would be to replace the entire logic board. An advantage to this repair is that if you have a base model machine you might be able to upgrade to the fastest model with maxed out RAM.
If you decide to replace the logic board purchase all the recommended tools (every job is easier when you use the right tools) and study (not just read) the correct guide and notes before you begin. Keep screws separated so you can put them back where they belong.
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