Take a look at http://www.asus.com/Notebooks_Ultrabooks.... It appears that they have most of that software if you choose "Windows 8" from the dropdown. Note that while the dropdown also has a Windows 8.1 section, I think that's only for the software that is different between Windows 8 and Windows 8.1. If you're running Windows 8.1, you'll probably want to use the versions of the software from the Windows 8.1 section for some things.
If you have access to a Windows installation disk, perhaps you can try starting your system from that. See Microsoft's page on starting Windows 7 from an install disk. If it boots from an install disk, I would think your problem is software related—perhaps your Windows installation is damaged? It appears that the Microsoft page I linked above gives some tips on fixing those sorts of issues—see the second section on recovering Windows from a serious error.
Others may have better ideas, but here's an initial thought: Is it possible that the battery has run down? Since the Kindle is eInk, the screen shouldn't require any power to leave the image on it. Perhaps it doesn't change the image to an explanation that the battery needs to be charged before the battery goes flat?
I'd say, first try using a pair of tweezers to reach inside the headphone port and pull out the broken-off part. If it can't be tugged out, I would consider opening the device following this guide until I could get to the headphone jack, and then trying to either push the broken part out if there's an opening in the back of the headphone jack, or to perhaps get the contacts inside the jack to push less firmly on the broken-off part to make pulling it out with tweasers more feasible. If that didn't work, I'd probably resort to unsoldering and replacing the jack, but if you don't feel comfortable with soldering you might or might not want to try that. I'm no expert; anyone else have a better idea?
First, I'm not sure if you've seen the camera module. There are some pictures of the one from the Galaxy S II here. Theoretically, it might be possible to rig the camera without the phone. But it would probably require building some kind of system to read data from the camera and write it to a storage device. I would guess that the camera doesn't have the smarts to output directly to some kind of storage that would be useful. As far as simply lengthening the connection between the camera and the phone mainboard, I would think that might work, although I don't know if there are certain lengths all the connections are expected to be, and if things will go wrong or not if that connection is longer. If you're trying to build a project requiring a camera and smarts, the first thing that comes to mind is the Raspberry Pi and its camera module. It might be worth a look!