You'll likely need to replace both the HD SATA cable and the HD its self. For now lets try the cable first.
Here's the IFIXIT guide you'll need to follow: MacBook Pro 13" Unibody Mid 2009 Hard Drive Cable Replacement and here's the needed part: MacBook Pro 13" Unibody (Mid 2009-Mid 2010) Hard Drive Cable. You'll also want to place some electrical tape down on the uppercase where the cable rides against as the rough surface of the aluminum of the case can wear the cable.
Since the drive does not have Mac OS-X on it you'll need to install it. I would recommend you find a friend with a Mac to help you create an OS installer thumb drive following this guide: How to make a bootable OS X 10.11 El Capitan installer drive as your system can't run anything newer than El Capitan OS-X 10.11.x. Hopefully he has the installer on his system or had at one point installed it. He may need to go to the Apps store and review what he's downloaded to download it again if he doesn't have it on his system. The one issue you may face is a certificate error which is cause by the systems clock date being outside of the certificate window Apple uses to force you to install a newer OS. Here we can still do it by going into the Preferences altering the clock to use the local time not server time and then set the date back 2015 or 2016.
Let us know how it goes!
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